Pronouns table

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1. PRONOMBRES PERSONALES (FUNCIN DE SUJETO) I YO YOU T, USTED HE L SHE ELLA IT ELLO (NEUTRO) WE NOSOTROS YOU VOSOTROS, USTEDES THEY ELLOS, ELLAS 2. PRONOMBRES PERSONALES (FUNCIN DE OBJETO) ME M YOU A T, A USTED HIM A L HER A ELLA IT A ELLO US A NOSOTROS YOU A VOSOTROS, A USTEDES THEM A ELLOS 3. PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS (EN FUNCIN DE DETERMINANTE DE SUJETO) MY MI, MIS YOUR TU, TUS (DE T) / SU, SUS (DE USTED) HIS SU, SUS (DE L) HER SU, SUS (DE ELLA) ITS SU, SUS OUR NUESTRO/A NUESTROS/AS YOUR VUESTRO/A, VUESTROS/AS, SU, SUS (DE USTEDES) THEIR SU, SUS (DE ELLOS) 4. PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS (EN FUNCIN DE PRONOMBRE) MINE MIO/S, MA/S YOURS TUYO/S, TUYA/S, SUYO/S, SUYA/S HIS SUYO/S, SUYA/S (DE EL) HERS SUYO/S, SUYA/S (DE ELLA) ITS SU, SUS OURS NUESTRO/S, NUESTRA/S YOURS VUESTRO/A, VUESTROS/AS, SUYO/S, SUYA/S 5. PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS (EN FUNCIN DE PRONOMBRE) MYSELF YO MISMO, A MI YOURSELF T MISMO (A TI), USTED MISMO (A USTED) HIMSELF L MISMO, A SI MISMO HERSELF ELLA MISMA, A SI MISMA ITSELF L MISMO, AS MISMO OURSELVES NOSOTROS MISMOS YOURSELVES VOSOTROS MISMOS, USTEDES MISMOS THEMSELVES ELLOS MISMOS 6. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO QUIEN, QUIENES, QUE SE USA SLO PARA PERSONAS THAT QUE SE USA PARA COSAS Y PERSONAS WHICH QUE, EL/LA CUAL, LOS/LAS CUALES, LO QUE SE USA PARA COSAS WHOM A QUIEN, A QUIENES, AL QUE WHOSE CUYO/A, CUYOS/AS, DE QUIEN, DE QUIENES WHAT LO QUE 7. PRONOMBRES INDEFINIDOS EVERYONE EVERYBODY TODOS/AS, TODO EL MUNDO NO ONE NOBODY NADIE SOMEONE SOMEBODY ALGUIEN ANYONE ANYBODY ALGUIEN AL PREGUNTAR ANYONE ANYBODY CUALQUIERA AL AFIRMAR ANYBODY ANYONE NADIE AL NEGAR 8. PRONOMBRES RECPROCOS EACH OTHER ONE ANOTHER SE, NOS, UNO AL OTRO, MUTUAMENTE, UNOS A OTROS. EVERYTHING TODO NOTHING NADA SOMETHING ALGO ANYTHING ALGO AL PREGUNTAR ANYTHING CUALQUIER COSA AL AFIRMAR ANYTHING NADA AL NEGAR 9. Can (presente) - Expresar habilidad - Expresar posibilidad o imposibilidad - Expresar o pedir permiso - En negativa expresar deduccin y prohibicin. Could (pasado) - Expresar habilidad en pasado. - Pedir algo educadamente. - Expresar posibilidad o imposibilidad en el pasado. - Hacer especulaciones (posibilidad remota) - Hacer sugerencias. - Remplaza a can en el estilo indirecto - Expresar una crtica. 10. May (pre/fut) - Pedir algo. - Expresar permiso. - Expresar posibilidad (presente o futura) - Hacer especulaciones. Might - Expresar posibilidad (ms dudosa) - Hacer especulaciones Should - Dar y pedir consejos (debera) - Expresar obligacin moral o que algo no es lo adecuado que esperabamos - Criticar acciones pasadas 11. Will - Hacer un ofrecimiento - Pedir algo educadamente Shall - Hacer un ofrecimiento - Pedir sugerencias - Tomar decisiones Would - Hacer un ofrecimiento - Rutinas en el pasado (afirm.) (sola) 12. MUST (PRESENTE) - EXPRESAR OBLIGACIN (AUTORIDAD FUERTE) - EN NEGATIVA: EXPRESAR PROHIBICIN - EXPRESAR DEDUCCIN (AFIRMATIVA) NEED - EXPRESAR NECESIDAD - CON SENTIDO PASIVO - EN NEGATIVA: AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACIN = DON'T HAVE TO OUGHT TO - DAR CONSEJOS - EXPRESAR OBLIGACIN MORAL USED TO - EXPRESAR HBITOS O RUTINAS EN EL PASADO HAVE (GOT) TO - EXPRESAR OBLIGACIN (+ SUAVE) 13. HAD BETTER - DAR CONSEJOS O SUGERENCIA (SERA MEJOR) WOULD RATHER - + INFINITIVO: PREFERIR ALGO 2 SUJETOS IGUALES - + ORACIN EN PASADO SIMPLE: (PREFERIRA) SUJETOS DIFERENTES - + INFINITIVO + THAN + INFINITIVO BE USED TO + -ING - EXPRESA "ESTAR ACOSTUMBRADO A.." GET USED TO + -ING - EXPRESA " ACOSTUMBRARSE A.." 14. ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA ALWAYS SIEMPRE USUALLY HABITUALMENTE FREQUENTLY FRECUENTEMENTE OFTEN A MENUDO SOMETIMES ALGUNAS VECES OCCASIONALLY OCASIONALMENTE RARELY CASI NUNCA SELDOM CASI NUNCA HARDLY EVER CASI NUNCA 15. RULE WORD S ED ER EST ING FOR MUST WORDS, SIMPLY ADD S, -ED, -ER, -EST, OR ING WITHOUT MAKING ANY OTHER CHANGES. CLEAN COOL CLEANS COOLS CLEANED COOLED CLEANER COOLER CLEANEST COOLEST CLEANING COOLING FOR WORDS ENDING IN A CONSONANT + Y, CHANGE THE Y TO I BEFORE ADDING S, -ED, - ER, -EST. DO NOT CHANGE OR DROP THE Y BEFORE ADDING -ING CARRY HAPPY LONELY STUDY WORRY CARRIES STUDIES WORRIES CARRIED STUDIED WORRIED CARRIER HAPPIER LONELIER WORRIER HAPPIEST LONELIEST CARRYING STUDYING WORRYING FOR MOST WORDS ENDING IN E, DROP THE E BEFORE ADDING ED, -ER, -EST, OR ING EXCEPTIONS: DANCE LATE NICE SAVE WRITE AGREE CANOE DANCED SAVED DANCER LATER NICER SAVER WRITER LATEST NICEST DANCING SAVING WRITING AGREEING CANOEING 16. FOR MANY WORDS ENDING IN ONE VOWEL AND ONE CONSONANT, DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT BEFORE ADDING ED, -ER, -EST, OR ING. THESE INCLUDE ONE SYLLABLE WORDS AND WORDS AND WORDS WITH STRESS ON THE FINAL SYLLABLE BEGIN HOT MAD PLAN OCCUR REFER RUN SHOP WIN PLANNED OCCURRE D REFERRED SHOPPED BEGINNER HOTTER MEDDLER PLANNER RUNNER SHOPPER WINNER HOTTEST MADDEST BEGINNIN G PLANNING OCCURRIN G REFERRING RUNNING SHOPPING WINNING IN WORDS ENDING IN ONE VOWEL AND ONE CONSONANT, DO NOT DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT IF THE LAST SYLLABLE IS NOT STRESSED EXCEPTIONS: INCLUDING WORDS ENDING IN W, X OR Y ENTER HAPPEN OPEN TRAVEL VISIT BUS FIX PLAY SEW BUSES ENTERED HAPPENE D OPENED TRAVELED VISITED BUSED FIXED PLAYED SEWED OPENER TRAVELER FIXER PLAYER SEWER ENTERING HAPPENIN G OPENING TRAVELING VISITING BUSING FIXING PLAYING SEWING RULE WORD S ED ER EST ING 17. RULE WORD S ED ER EST ING FOR WORDS ENDING IN CH, SH, S, X, Z, AND SOMETIMES O , ADD ES EXCEPTIONS CHURCH WASH CLASS FIX QUIZ TOMATO ZERO DYNAMO GHETTO MONARCH PIANO PORTAFOLI O RADIO STUDIO CHURCHES WASHES CLASES FIXES QUIZES TOMATOES ZEROES DYNAMOS GHETTOS MONARCH S PIANOS PORTAFOLI OS RADIOS STUDIOS FOR MOST WORDS ENDING IN F OR IF, CHANGE THE F TO V AND ADD ES EXCEPTIONS: HALF LOAF SHELF BELIEF CHIEF PROOF ROOF SAFE HALVES LOAVES SHELVES BELIEFS CHIEFS PROOFS ROOFS SAFES HALVED SHELVED SHELVER HALVING SHELVING 18. FOR MUST WORDS, SIMPLY ADD S, -ED, -ER, -EST, OR ING WITHOUT MAKING ANY OTHER CHANGES. CLEAN COOL CLEANS COOLS CLEANED COOLED CLEANER COOLER CLEANEST COOLEST CLEANING COOLING FOR WORDS ENDING IN A CONSONANT + Y, CHANGE THE Y TO I BEFORE ADDING S, -ED, -ER, -EST. CARRY HAPPY LONELY STUDY WORRY CARRIES STUDIES WORRIES CARRIED STUDIED WORRIED CARRIER HAPPIER LONELIER WORRIER HAPPIEST LONELIES T RULE WORD S ED ER EST ING 19. RULE WORD S ED ER EST ING FOR MOST WORDS ENDING IN E, DROP THE E BEFORE ADDING ED, -ER, -EST, OR ING EXCEPTIONS: DANCE LATE NICE SAVE WRITE AGREE CANOE DANCED SAVED DANCER LATER NICER SAVER WRITER LATEST NICEST DANCING SAVING WRITING AGREEING CANOEING FOR MOST WORDS ENDING IN ONE VOWEL AND ONE CONSONANT, DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT BEFORE ADDING ED, -ER, -EST, OR ING. COMMON EXCEPTIONS: WORDS ENDING IN U, X OR Y BEGIN HOT MAD PLAN RUN WIN BUS HAPPEN OPEN TRAVEL FIX PLAY SEW BUSES PLANNED BUSED HAPPENED OPENED TRAVELED FIXED PLAYED SEWED BEGINNER HOTTER MEDDLER PLANNER RUNNER WINNER OPENER TRAVELER FIXER PLAYER SEWER HOTTEST MADDEST BEGINNING PLANNING RUNNING WINNING BUSING HAPPENING OPENING TRAVELING FIXING PLAYING SEWING 20. FOR MOST WORDS ENDING IN F OR IF, CHANGE THE F TO V AND ADD ES EXCEPTIONS: HALF LOAF SHELF BELIEF CHIEF PROOF ROOF SAFE HALVES LOAVES SHELVES BELIEFS CHIEFS PROOFS ROOFS SAFES HALVED SHELVED FOR WORDS ENDING IN CH, SH, S, X, Z, AND SOMETIMES O , ADD ES EXCEPTIONS CHURCH WASH CLASS FIX QUIZ TOMATO DYNAMO GHETTO PIANO PORTAFOLI O RADIO STUDIO CHURCHES WASHES CLASES FIXES QUIZES TOMATOES DYNAMOS GHETTOS PIANOS PORTAFOLIO S RADIOS STUDIOS RULE WORD S ED ER EST ING