Textos en Ingles con Interpretaciones en Espa±ol

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Textos en Ingles con Interpretaciones en Español

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  • 1. INTERPRETACION DE TEXTOS EN INGLES PREPARATORIA #12Textos en Ingles e interpretaciones en Espaol 1
  • 2. Ethical egoism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_egoismEthical egoism (also called simply egoism) is the normative ethical position thatmoral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs frompsychological egoism, which claims that people can only act in their self-interest.Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds merely that it isrational to act in ones self-interest. Contractual egoism acknowledges theinterdependence of self-interests through voluntary, freely-chosen exchanges.These doctrines may, though, be combined with ethical egoism.Ethical egoism contrasts with ethical altruism, which holds that moral agents havean obligation to help and serve others. Egoism and altruism both contrast withethical utilitarianism, which holds that a moral agent should treat ones self (alsoknown as the subject) with no higher regard than one has for others (as egoismdoes, by elevating self-interests and "the self" to a status not granted to others), butthat one also should not (as altruism does) sacrifice ones own interests to helpothers interests, so long as ones own interests (i.e. ones own desires or well-being) are substantially-equivalent to the others interests and well-being. Egoism,utilitarianism, and altruism are all forms of consequentialism, but egoism andaltruism contrast with utilitarianism, in that egoism and altruism are both agent-focused forms of consequentialism (i.e. subject-focused or subjective), bututilitarianism is called agent-neutral (i.e. objective and impartial) as it does not treatthe subjects (i.e. the selfs, i.e. the moral "agents") own interests as being more orless important than the interests, desires, or well-being of others.Ethical egoism does not, however, require moral agents to harm the interests andwell-being of others when making moral deliberation; e.g. what is in an agents self-interest may be incidentally detrimental, beneficial, or neutral in its effect on others.Individualism allows for others interest and well-being to be disregarded or not, aslong as what is chosen is efficacious in satisfying the self-interest of the agent. Nordoes ethical egoism necessarily entail that, in pursuing self-interest, one ought 2
  • 3. always to do what one wants to do; e.g. in the long term, the fulfillment of short-term desires may prove detrimental to the self. Fleeting pleasure, then, takes aback seat to protracted eudaimonia. In the words of James Rachels, "Ethicalegoism [...] endorses selfishness, but it doesnt endorse foolishness."Ethical egoism is sometimes the philosophical basis for support of libertarianism orindividualist anarchism, although these can also be based on altruistic motivations.These are political positions based partly on a belief that individuals should notcoercively prevent others from exercising freedom of action.Types of ethical egoismThree different formulations of ethical egoism have been identified: individual,personal and universal. An individual ethical egoist would hold that all peopleshould do whatever benefits them; a personal ethical egoist would hold that he orshe should act in his or her own self-interest, but would make no claims about whatanyone else ought to do; a universal ethical egoist would argue that everyoneshould act in ways that are in their own interest.According to Deepak Patidars, a philosophy holding that one should be honest,just, benevolent etc., because those virtues serve ones self-interest is egoistic; oneholding that one should practice those virtues for reasons other than self-interest isnot egoistic. 3
  • 4. Interpretacin Egosmo ticoEl egosmo tico no es otra cosa que el egosmo, nombre que se le danormalmente por la sociedad; el egosmo es el nombre que se le da a una personaegosta que quiere decir que ve por sus propios intereses, y que el inters de losdems no le importa o le importa poco; el egosmo tico es diferente al egosmopsicolgico y al racional, ya que el egosmo tico es acerca de la moralidad ya quees la nica forma moral de obrar, el psicolgico acerca de la motivacin que niegala existencia de conductas verdaderamente altruistas y el racional es un punto devista de la racionalidad.El egosmo tico tiene como obligacin moral la de ayudar y servir a los dems,donde una persona moral tiene que tratarse a uno mismo igual que a las demspersonas, que significa que uno debe sacrificar sus propios intereses para ayudara los dems siempre y cuando los propios deseos sean semejantes al de losdems. Las formas del consecuencialsimo son varias donde entra el egosmo y elaltruismo donde se tienen los objetivos bien concretos, otra forma es el utilitarismoal que se le llama agente neutral es decir imparcial adems de que es un contrasteentre el egosmo y el altruismo. "El egosmo tico aprueba el egosmo, pero norespalda una tontera que es una frase de James Rachelsc donde se explicaperfectamente lo que es el egosmo. El anarquismo libertario es la base filosficadel egosmo tico que suelen basarse en motivaciones altruistas.Hay varios tipos de egosmo que son el individual, el personal y el universal. Elindividual sostiene que todas las personas deben hacer lo que beneficia a ellos, elpersonal sostiene que l o ella deben actuar en su propio inters y el universalargumentan que todo el mundo debe actuar de manera que se encuentran en supropio inters. 4
  • 5. Uno como persona segn Deepak Patidars debe ser honesta, justa, benvola etc.,ya que servir al inters propio es egosta por lo que debemos practicar y ejerceresas virtudes para no ser egostas al contrario ser solidarios y darle a los demsparte de lo que uno tiene, claro sin dejar de servirse para uno, pero siempre conbuena voluntad para ser visto como una buena persona.CONCLUSIN Hablar sobre tica ayuda de gran manera a las personas y a nosotros mismos ya que nos ensea entre otras muchas cosas a valorarnos a nosotros tal y como somos y de valorar a los dems.Los temas ticos me agradan por que no tratan de ensear (en mi punto de vista) sino de que te ayudan a vivir mejor tu vida y de una buena manera con responsabilidad y de una manera alegre, adems de la convivencia con otras personas. Mexican peso 5
  • 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_pesoThe peso (sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico. The peso was the firstcurrency in the world to use the "$" sign, which the United States dollar lateradopted for its own use. The peso is the 12th most traded currency in the world andby far the most traded currency in Latin America and third most traded in all theAmericas. The current ISO 4217 code for the peso is MXN; prior to the 1993revaluation, the code MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos,represented by "". The name was originally used in reference to pesos oro (goldweights) or pesos plata (silver weights). The literal English translation of theSpanish word peso is weight. As of October 24, 2010, the pesos exchange ratewas 17.21 per Euro and 12.33 per U.S. dollar.HistoryFirst pesoThe peso was originally the name of the eight-real coins issued in Mexico by Spain.These were the so-called Spanish dollars or pieces of eight in wide circulation inthe Americas and Asia from the height of the Spanish Empire until the early 19thcentury. After Mexico gained its independence in 1821, the new governmentcontinued the Spanish monetary system of 16 silver reales = 1 gold escudo, withthe peso of 8 reales the largest silver coin. Paper money was also issued,denominated in pesos.In 1863, the first issue was made of coins denominated in centavos, worth onehundredth of the peso. This was followed in 1866 by coins denominated "onepeso". Coins denominated in reales continued to be issued until 1897. In 1905, thegold content of the peso was reduced by 49.3% but the silver content of the pesoremained initially unchanged (subsidiary coins were debased). However, from 1918onward, the weight and fineness of all the silver coins declined, until 1977, whenthe last silver 100-peso coins were minted. 6
  • 7. Second pesoThroughout the most of the 20th century, the Mexican peso remained one of themore stable currencies in Latin America, since the economy did not experienceperiods of hyperinflation common to other countries in the region. However, afterthe Oil Crisis of the late 1970s, Mexico defaulted on its external debt in 1982, as aresult of which the country suffered a severe case of capital flight and experiencedseveral years of inflation and devaluation until a government economic strategycalled the "Stability and Economic Growth Pact" (Pacto de estab