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Use of alternative fuels and raw materials
PRONOUNS SESSIONPresented by: Muhamad Fajar ENGLISH DISCUSSIONPRONUNCIATION
#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group SupportContentDefinition pronounsTypes of pronounsExercises
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group SupportDefinition PronounsPronouns are words that take the place of nouns or other pronouns. We don't need to repeat the same noun several times in a textFor example: The computer started up but then the computer crashed because the computer is old, BECOME : The computer started up but then it crashed because it is oldEnglish_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group SupportEnglish_PronounsTypes of Pronouns
#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group SupportTypes of PronounsThere are several different types of pronouns:Personal PronounsPossessive PronounsReflexive PronounsIntensive/ Emphatic PronounsRelative PronounsInterrogative PronounsDemonstrative PronounsIndefinite PronounsReciprocal Pronouns
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support1.Personal PronounsPersonal pronouns are pronouns that refer to people or things. These pronouns can be further categorized into singular or plural; first, second, or third person; and subjective or objective case (i.e. functioning as the subject or an object in a sentence, respectively). English_PronounsPersonSubjective CaseObjective CasePossessive Case
Absolute Possessive PronounsFirst Person SingularImemymineSecond Person SingularyouyouyouryoursThird Person Singularhe/she/ithim/her/ithis/her/itshis/hers/itsFirst Person PluralweusouroursSecond Person PluralyouyouyouryoursThird Person Pluraltheythemtheirtheirs#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support1.Personal PronounsExamples :I am not going to the party. [First person, singular, subjective] The fight ends with me. [First person, singular, objective]We couldnt discover the root of the issue. [First person, plural, subjective] Could you provide us with some privacy? [First person, plural, objective]You make me smile. [Second person, singular, subjective] Is Jimmy taking you? [Second person, singular, objective]You must pass the exam before employment can be considered. [Second person, plural, subjective] Samson, Inc is here to help you. [Second person, plural, objective]
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support2.Possessive PronounsPossessive pronouns function as adjectives that indicate ownership or relationship. They can be identified as first, second, or third person and singular or plural as well.
Example :We are leaving our lives in the hands of the rescue team. [First person, plural]The others opinions are irrelevant; the only one that matters is yours. [Second person, singular]Their conclusions overstepped the bounds of their research. [Third person, plural] I cannot find its case. [Third person, singular]
English_PronounsSingularPluralFirst Personmy, mineour, oursSecond Personyouryour, yoursThird Personhis, hers, itstheir, theirs#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support3.Reflexive PronounsReflexive Pronouns reflect the readers attention back to the subject of the sentence. Reflexive pronouns are used in two main situations: when the subject and direct object are the same thing and when the subject and object of a preposition are the same.
Example :Situation ONE: James shot himself in the foot.Situation TWO: I talk to myself quite relentlessly. You are more afraid of yourself than anyone else.
English_PronounsSingularPlural firstFirst PersonmyselfourselvesSecond PersonyourselfyourselvesThird PersonHimself, herself, itselfthemselves#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support4.Intensive/ Emphatic PronounsAn intensive pronoun (sometimes called an emphatic pronoun) refers back to another noun or pronoun in the sentence to emphasize it. A way to distinguish between reflexive and intensive pronouns is to remove the pronoun from the sentence if the sentence still makes sense, the pronoun is intensive.
Examples:We ourselves would have never considered it an option.I have climbed Everest three times myself.English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support5.Relative PronounsA relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that its relative clause modifiesThere are five relative pronouns:who,whom,whose,which,that*Who(subject) andwhom(object) are generally only for people.Whoseis for possession.Whichis for things.Thatcan be used for thingsandpeople only indefiningrelative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information)Example :The personwhophoned me last night is my teacher.The personwhomI phoned last night is my teacher.Dear handsome admirer, I always think that you're a very nice fellow. (Secret Admirers lyric)The car,whosedriver jumped out just before the accident, was completely destroyed.English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support6.Interrogative PronounsThese pronouns have the same form as relative pronouns but are used to introduce a question instead.The most typical interrogative pronouns are What, Which, Who, Whom, Whose
Example :A:Did you see that documentary about the SARS virus last night?B;No,what channelwas it on?(or: Which channel was it on?)(R. Carter and M. McCarthy,Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)
A : Whichcame first?B : The Porsche 911came first.
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support7.Demonstrative PronounsDemonstrative pronouns are those that identify or point to a thing or things and occasionally persons. They can be both singular and plural and they refer to nouns that are either nearby or far away in time or space. There are only four demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those. Thisandthat refer to singular nouns andtheseandthoseidentify plural nouns.Example :That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)These[pancakes sitting here now on my plate] are deliciousThose[pancakes that I had yesterday morning] were even better.
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support8.Indefinite PronounsAn indefinite pronoun refers to a non-specific person or thing. They often suggest a number or amount (some, all, everyone, few), the measure is not specific. These pronouns can be tricky because some of them can be both singular and plural.
Example :Someone has to take out the trash. (singular)Is any left?. (singular)Most of the audience responds to this type of persuasion. (plural)Each of the students identifies a few of his/her favorite hobbies. (singular; plural)English_Pronouns
#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support9.Reciprocal PronounsA reciprocal pronoun is used for an action or feeling that is reciprocated. We use reciprocal pronouns when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other. There must be two or more people, things or groups involved We cannot use reciprocal pronouns with I, you [singular], he/she/it)The two most common reciprocal pronouns are "each other" and "one another".A is talking to B, and B is talking to A. So we say:A and B are talking to each other.
Examples:The athletes defended one another both on and off the field.Jane and Bill are fond of each other."All birds and animals talk to one another--they really have to, in order to get along."People whose grandparents were all long-lived and lived with the family, shooteach otherbefore they are 40."English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group SupportExercisesEach of the sentences or phrases below contains a pronoun. Determine whether the pronoun is used correctly, and identify the appropriate pronoun if it is not.I would have gladly left it all behind. (correct / not correct)Dr. Hodges, which you met in Dallas, spoke at the Lyceum today.. (correct / not correct)To whom it may concern: (correct / not correct)Dillmore themselves questioned the wisdom in such an act. (correct / not correct)
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support1615-Apr-14ExercisesEach of the sentences or phrases below contains several pronouns. Choose the right pronoun for the sentences below.Professor Randall, (who/whom) I respect, is speaking at an assembly inI study in the library because (its, its) computers have the best programs.Enrique and (I, me) will bring the food for the party.Most of the food (was, were) donated by a local restaurant.All the class members have introduced (theyselves/themselves) to each other.
English_Pronouns#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group SupportEnglish_Pronouns
#15.04.2014/CEN/OtCMC AFR.pptHolcim Group Support